Writing useful comments

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It was drummed into me throughout my software engineering training years - the essential internal documentation of software - the comment.

After a few years actually engineering software, I’ve found that I can categorise most comments into 4 basic types:

  1. The obsolete code block, often with an accompanying note about why it was removed or replaced
  2. The overly-verbose or overly-descriptive, highlighting the obvious
  3. The reference; a Bug tracking reference number or URL link to where the block of code originated
  4. The one or two-liner descriptive, concise explanation

And having done so, I have found that the first 3 are actually detrimental to the process of maintaining or otherwise changing software. Let’s look at them in closer detail to find out why..

  1. If we’re using any decent form of source code version control, then there is no benefit whatsoever to leaving commented out, obsolete code blocks in the software - in fact, I’d argue that when following a thread of logic through function to function, having to skip over comments that look like code is actually detrimental to understanding why the code does what it does. Consider that source control makes it a trivial task to compare or replace the current code with any previous checked-in version of the code, and there simply isn’t a sensible reason to leave old code in place.

  2. I take this to be an indication that there is no accompanying documentation, or it’s going to be sparse at best. If it’s a block comment about why a particular feature exists then a better place for it is in some form of requirements documentation; if it’s a block comment about a design decision then it would be better placed in the design documentation. Any other documentation format easily wins over plain-text descriptions, and designs are better illustrated, well, with illustrations.

  3. I’ve worked out that both of the above are bad, yet I still catch myself thinking that it’s somehow beneficial to the maintenance of the code if I include a Bug tracking reference number next to the code I’ve changed. If I’m coming back to the code because of a problem with the fix I’ve made, then it’s much easier to search through the source code version control check-in comments for the Bug reference number than through the source code itself - if only because it’ll be a hell of a lot faster. If I’m in the code for another reason - say I’m adding something new - finding a Bug tracking number isn’t going to make me head off to the Bug System and look up it’s history.. I know what the code is doing because I’m in there reading it and stepping through it. URLs serve as a similar distraction from the actual workings of the software. That said, I think URLs are useful in referencing the origin of an entire Class, algorithm or Library.

  4. The most helpful comments I’ve found are the concise, single-line description of what’s going on that help keep the reader on track - such as what we’re looping through or why we’re looping when we’re 2 or 3 Arrays deep. Like breadcrumbs, they assist you and your maintainer in un-ravelling the mystery of your software.

I’ve found that putting as much thought into the content of my comments, as I do into the content of my code, makes it much easier to maintain my software.